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By: S. Riordian, M.B. B.CH. B.A.O., M.B.B.Ch., Ph.D.
Medical Instructor, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California
Myospasm of masticatory muscles greatly limits mandibular movement and can change occlusion suddenly because of its rapid onset hair loss stress purchase generic finpecia on-line. Local myalgia hair loss in men zip off pants order finpecia 1mg otc, or pain specific to individual muscles hair loss men cheap 1mg finpecia otc, may result from ischemia or fatigue and may present as delayed-onset muscle soreness and protective co-contraction. Occlusal parafunction, extended dental appointments, metabolic imbalances, and sympathetic nervous system influences have been associated with this painful muscular reaction. An extended period of limited range of mandibular movement can result in fibrosis of the muscle and related attachments, creating a painless condition called myofibrotic contracture. Sensitization of peripheral nocioceptors by higher neural centers and inflammation at the site of origin of pain can alter pain perception. Although some of these situations exhibit gender bias because of hormonal factors, the influence of stress on pain experiences and the effect of variable coping skills are reported for both genders. Standard dental or medical history forms may require modification to include questions regarding any history of limited or painful jaw movement, noise in either joint, and masticatory muscle symptoms (Box 30-2). These issues should be documented with regard to timing, duration, frequency, and relationship to any history of trauma. The physical examination actually begins during the interview, when asymmetries in facial form, head posture, and mandibular movement patterns can be observed. Clinical evaluation of the various structures of the masticatory system, although individual to each practitioner, should include the following9,38,118: 1. After identifying centric relation, as described in this chapter, the dentist employs procedures for establishing tooth contact by using interocclusal, hard occlusal splints and occlusal adjustment. In addition to stable centric relation, the masticatory system requires an intercuspal position that is tolerated by the joints, ligaments, and muscles and ideally, anterior disclusion to limit the contact of posterior teeth during functional and parafunctional mandibular movements. When any of these requirements is compromised, dysfunction of the masticatory system becomes more likely. The masticatory system consists of the temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles, oral structures, and all their corresponding vascular and neurologic components. As such, many conditions exist where various aspects of these structures change because of wear or inflammation. As changes occur, various components are affected, and in many cases, pain results. This makes definitive diagnosis extremely difficult, and although improved, imaging of masticatory structures is still problematic. Thus, masticatory system disorders remain a difficult area for diagnosis and treatment. Observation of departure from a straight path of opening and closing the mandible suggests an intracapsular disorder or masticatory muscle incoordination. The range of right and left lateral excursions is usually about 9 mm, and protrusion of mandible is typically 7 mm. The intensity and nature of any sounds, clicks, pops, or crepitus (grinding, grating, or rubbing sounds) should be recorded accurately. Any sound detected as part of the initial evaluation should be tracked consistently to detect any change. Inability to bite or close teeth together completely without discomfort in one or both jaw joints? Any sounds, such as clicks or pops, in either jaw joint, especially when opening or while eating? Chronic or frequently recurring headaches, especially migraine or cluster type of headache? Having to "adjust" the jaw or manipulate jaw joint with your hand to be able to open or close your mouth? An occupation or activity that requires regular stressful posture, such as cradling a telephone between head and shoulder, working at a computer, playing a musical instrument, or scuba diving? Awareness of frequently keeping your teeth together, maintaining a clenched jaw, or holding your jaw in an assumed position, such as holding a pipe?
If the tissue is inflamed hair loss cure oil purchase finpecia online now, the clinician must determine to what extent this is caused by plaque accumulation or the presence of residual calculus and to what degree further root planing is necessary hair loss low testosterone purchase cheap finpecia line. To do its job at all hair loss in men 21 cheap finpecia on line, a dull instrument must be held more firmly and pressed harder than a sharp instrument. This reduces tactile sensitivity and increases the possibility that the instrument will inadvertently slip. Therefore, to avoid wasting time and operating haphazardly, clinicians must be thoroughly familiar with the principles of sharpening and able to apply them to produce a keen cutting edge on the instruments they are using. Development of this skill requires patience and practice, but clinical excellence cannot be attained without it. Figure51107 the cutting edge of a curette is formed by the angular junction of the face and the lateral surfaces of the instrument. EvaluationofSharpness the cutting edge of an instrument is formed by the angular junction of two surfaces of its blade. The cutting edges of a curette, for example, are formed where the face of the blade meets the lateral surfaces (Figure 51-107). When the instrument is sharp, this junction is a fine line running the length of the cutting edge. As the instrument is used, metal is worn away at the cutting edge, and the junction of the face and lateral surface becomes rounded or dulled6,81 (Figure 51-108). This is why a dull instrument cuts less efficiently and requires more pressure to do its job. When a dull instrument is held under a light, the rounded surface of its cutting edge reflects light back to the observer. It appears as a bright line running the length of the cutting edge (Figure 51-109). The acutely angled cutting edge of a sharp instrument, on the other hand, has no surface area to reflect light. When a sharp instrument is held under a light, no bright line can be observed (see Figure 51-107). Tactile evaluation of sharpness is performed by drawing the instrument lightly across an acrylic rod known as a "sharpening test stick. This is done by grinding the surfaces of the blade until their junction is once again sharply angular rather than rounded. A technique is acceptable if it produces a sharp cutting edge without unduly wearing the instrument or altering its original design. To maintain the original design, the operator must understand the location and course of the cutting edges and the angles between the surfaces that form them. It is important to restore the cutting edge without distorting the original angles of the instrument. When these angles have been altered, the instrument does not function as it was designed to function, which limits its effectiveness. Figure51109 Light reflected from the rounded cutting edge of a dull instrument appears as a bright line. SharpeningStones Sharpening stones may be quarried from natural mineral deposits or produced artificially. In either case, the surface of the stone is made up of abrasive crystals that are harder than the metal of the instrument to be sharpened. Coarse stones have larger particles and cut more rapidly; they are used on instruments that are dull. Finer stones with smaller crystals cut more slowly and are reserved for final sharpening to produce a finer edge and for sharpening instruments that are only slightly dull. Carborundum, ruby, and ceramic stones are synthetically produced (Figure 51-110) Sharpening stones can also be categorized by their method of use. MountedRotaryStones these stones are mounted on a metal mandrel and used in a motor-driven handpiece. These stones are generally not recommended for routine use because they (1) are difficult to control precisely and can ruin the shape of the instrument, (2) tend to wear down the instrument quickly, and (3) can generate considerable frictional heat, which may affect the temper of the instrument. Some are rectangular with flat or grooved surfaces, whereas others are cylindrical or cone shaped. Unmounted stones may be used in two ways: the instrument may be stabilized and held stationary while the stone is drawn across it, or the stone may be stabilized and held stationary while the instrument is drawn across it. Top to bottom, A flat India stone, a flat Arkansas stone, a cone-shaped Arkansas stone, and a ceramic stone.
IgG antibodies fix complement and promote phagocytic uptake of the bacteria through Fc receptors on macrophages hair loss in dogs finpecia 1 mg. IgA is the primary secretory antibody and is important for protecting mucosal membranes hair loss boston buy finpecia 1 mg overnight delivery. Large amounts of secretory IgA are released to regulate the normal flora population hair loss 23 buy finpecia 1 mg on line, prevent adhesion of bacteria, and neutralize toxins at epithelial cell surfaces. A primary antigen-specific response to bacterial infection takes at least 5 to 7 days. On rechallenge to infection, long-lived plasma cells may still be producing antibody. In the respiratory tract, antimicrobial peptides and secreted IgA control bacteria, mucus traps, and cilia move the mucus and bacteria out of the lungs. Inflammatory responses are controlled by alveolar macrophages (M2 macrophages) to prevent tissue damage to normal flora. Bacterial Immunopathogenesis Activation of the inflammatory and acute-phase responses can initiate significant tissue and systemic damage. Increased blood flow and fluid leakage can lead to shock when it occurs throughout the body. Antibodies produced against bacterial antigens that share determinants with human proteins can initiate autoimmune tissue destruction. The sudden massive release of cytokines ("cytokine storm") can cause shock and severe tissue damage. Skin, Intestinal, and Mucosal Immunity the skin, intestine, and mucous membranes are populated with bacteria upon traversing the birth canal and soon thereafter. The immune response matures, and a balance develops between regulatory and inflammatory cells in response to this normal flora. The intestinal flora is constantly interacting with and being regulated by the innate and immune systems of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (see Figure 7-5). Similarly, the immune response is shaped by its interaction with intestinal flora as regulatory cells limit the development of autoimmune responses and inflammation. These cells and epithelial and other cells lining the gut produce antimicrobial peptides, and plasma cells secrete IgA into the gut to maintain a healthy mixture of bacteria. At the same time, regulatory cells prevent the development of detrimental or excessive immune responses to the contents of the gut. Alterations in the microbial flora and its interaction with the innate and immune cells can disrupt the system and result in inflammatory bowel diseases. For example, absence or a Bacterial Evasion of Protective Responses the mechanisms used by bacteria to evade host-protective responses are discussed in Chapter 14 as virulence factors. These mechanisms include (1) inhibition of phagocytosis and intracellular killing in the phagocyte, (2) inactivation of complement function, (3) binding of the Fc portion of IgG and cleavage of IgA, (4) intracellular growth (avoidance of antibody), and (5) change in bacterial antigenic appearance. Some microorganisms, including but not limited to mycobacteria (also Listeria and Brucella species), survive and multiply within macrophages and use the macrophages as a protective reservoir or transport system to help spread the organisms throughout the body. However, cytokine-activated macrophages can often kill the intracellular pathogens. Failure to resolve the infection may lead to persistent or chronic infection or death. The course of the immune response and the nature of the immunopathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections are different. For bacteria, complement and the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages are the initial response, and they rapidly drive the disease-associated inflammation. For viruses, type I interferons and other cytokines initiate the response, prodrome symptoms are driven by interferon and cytokines, but protection, inflammatory responses and disease often wait until T cells become activated. As a result, the time course and nature of bacterial and viral disease are very different. Often the nonspecific defenses are sufficient to control a viral infection, thus preventing the occurrence of symptoms. Induction of fever and stimulation of the immune system are two of these systemic effects.
Physicians should be aware of the related epidemiology of Dientamoeba fragilis; this organism correlates well with the presence of E hair loss cancer purchase genuine finpecia on line. Larvae hatch in the small intestine and migrate to the large intestine excessive hair loss cure generic 1 mg finpecia with mastercard, where they mature into adults in 2 to 6 weeks hair loss cure yeast cheap finpecia 1mg on line. Fertilization of the female by the male produces the characteristic asymmetric eggs. Diagnostic stage Egg on perianal folds Gravid female migrates to perianal region to lay eggs at night Infective stage Embryonated egg (infective within hours) Eggs hatch in small intestine and larva moves to large intestine Penetrates and develops in mucosa Mature into adults (2-6 weeks) Adults in lumen of cecum New World hookworm Hookworm infection Dog heartworm Guinea worm Dirofilariasis Dracunculosis Clinical Syndromes Many children and adults show no symptoms and serve only as carriers. Patients who are allergic to the secretions of the migrating worms experience severe pruritus, loss of sleep, and fatigue. The pruritus may cause repeated scratching of the irritated area and lead to secondary bacterial infection. Worms that migrate into the vagina may produce genitourinary problems and granulomas. Worms attached to the bowel wall may produce inflammation and granuloma formation around the eggs. Although the adult worms may occasionally invade the appendix, there remains no proven relationship between pinworm invasion and appendicitis. Penetration through the bowel wall into the peritoneal cavity, liver, and lungs has been infrequently recorded. The thin-walled eggs are 50 to 60 Ч 20 to 30 µm, ovoid, and flattened on one side (not because children sit on them, but this is an easy way to correlate the egg morphology with the epidemiology of the disease). Laboratory Diagnosis the diagnosis of enterobiasis is usually suggested by the clinical manifestations and confirmed by detection of the characteristic eggs on the anal mucosa. Occasionally the adult worms are seen by laboratory personnel in stool specimens, but the method of choice for diagnosis involves use of an anal swab with a sticky surface that picks up the eggs (Figure 75-3) for microscopic examination. The sample should be collected when the child arises and before bathing or defecation, to pick up eggs laid by migrating worms during the night. Parents can collect the specimen and deliver it to the physician for immediate microscopic examination. Three swabbings, 1 per day for 3 consecutive days, may be required to detect the diagnostic eggs. To avoid reintroduction of the organism and reinfection in the family environment, it is customary to treat the entire family simultaneously. When housecleaning is done in the home of an infected family, dusting under beds, on window sills, and over doors should be done with a damp mop to avoid inhalation of infectious eggs. The ingested infective egg releases a larval worm that penetrates the duodenal wall, enters the bloodstream, is carried to the liver and heart, and then enters the pulmonary circulation. In about 3 weeks, the larvae pass from the respiratory system to be coughed up, swallowed, and returned to the small intestine. As the male and female worms mature in the small intestine (primarily jejunum), fertilization of the female by the male initiates egg production, which may amount to 200,000 eggs per day for as long as a year. This species is seen in swine growers and is associated with the use of pig manure for gardening. Ascaris eggs are quite hardy and can survive extreme temperatures and persist for several months in feces and sewage. Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection worldwide, with an estimated 1 billion people infected. Clinical Syndromes Infections caused by ingestion of only a few eggs may produce no symptoms; however, even a single adult Ascaris worm may be dangerous because it can migrate into the bile duct and liver and damage tissue. Furthermore, because the worm has a tough, flexible body, it can occasionally perforate the intestine, creating peritonitis with secondary bacterial infection (Clinical Case 75-1). The patient was born in Vietnam and had immigrated to the United States when she was in her early 20s. An abdominal computed tomography scan with contrast showed abnormal perfusion of the left hepatic lobe and dilation of the left biliary radicles with multiple filling defects. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse enhancement of the left lobe and left portal vein, suggestive of inflammation.